Cancer stages are referred by a Roman Numeral. This system uses numerals 0, I, II, III, and IV to describe the progression of cancer.
Stage is determined by:
Size and location of the tumor
Whether tumor has spread to local/regional nodes
Whether tumor has spread to other sites.
Cancer stages include:
Stage 0: abnormal cells growing in their normal place, often referred to as “in situ.”
Stage I: cancers are localized to one part of the body defined as small tumors not spread to lymph nodes. Stage I cancer can be surgically removed if small enough.
Stage II: cancers are locally advanced meaning they are larger tumors than stage one and have spread to lymph nodes. Stage II cancer can be treated by chemotherapy, radiation, or sometimes surgery.
Stage III: cancers are also locally advanced, but may differ from stage II based and the size and location of the lymph nodes, and if have spread to nearby structures of the lung. Stage III can be treated by chemotherapy, radiation, or sometimes surgery.
Stage IV: cancers have often metastasized, or spread to other organs or throughout the body. Stage IV cancer can be treated by chemotherapy, radiation, or rarely surgery. Despite treatment, a patient’s mortality rate can be significantly higher with Stage IV cancer,